The process of waste water treatment includes purification or treatment of solid waste or sewage fluid to either eliminate or reduce their amount and size, minimize the harmful biological activity and spread of bacteria, and avoid or control the disposal of such solid waste. The most common forms of waste water treatment include mechanical filtration and chemical sanitization. Other techniques for waste water treatment include organic chemical stabilization, carbon dioxide air ionization, ion exchange, and submicron filtration.
Mechanical filtration is one of the oldest forms of waste water treatment. This method involves the removal of impurities by passing wastewater through a porous membrane. The permeability of these membranes is important because they control the concentration of solid materials and biological waste materials in wastewater. Inorganic and organic contaminants are removed by mechanical filtration while dissolved solids and suspended solids are transported through the system.
Mechanical treatment can be accomplished by either mechanical or biological filters. Biological filters have the advantage of being able to control the concentration of organic compounds in wastewater, which makes them effective against microorganisms. For instance, biopurification is one method used to control organic compound concentration in wastewater, while ion exchange prevents the occurrence of dissolved solids. As a result of this, the presence of organic compounds in wastewater is reduced.
Chemical sanitization of wastewater involves use of certain substances to destroy or remove harmful microorganisms and chemicals from wastewater. Examples of chemicals used in chemical sanitization include chlorine, THMs, VOCs, and VOC-exhalation by-products. In addition to these chemicals, other compounds may be introduced into wastewater for sanitization purposes. Some examples of chemicals that can be added into wastewater are biocides, alkanes, phosphates, and heavy metals.
Solid waste water treatment uses carbon dioxide to increase the solubility of solid material. This procedure is effective at removing dissolved solid materials as well as increasing the volume of wastewater containing dissolved solids. In this type of treatment, carbon dioxide is introduced to wastewater by means of carbon dioxide refrigeration units. In addition to carbon dioxide, other types of chemicals can also be added to the wastewater in order to produce chemical sanitizing products.
These are some of the types of solid waste water treatment methods. Different techniques may be used depending on the type of solid wastes being treated.
Another effective waste water treatment method is known as carbon adsorption. In this process, wastewater is separated into carbon-rich and carbon-poor wastewater through a process that involves a chemical solution that reduces the amount of dissolved solids present in the wastewater.
Chemical processing is usually combined with biological processes in order to increase the efficiency of the processes. These two processes are often combined in combination with a biological filter. There are also advanced systems that combine both biological and chemical processing to improve the efficiency of both processes.